The British carved the state of Transjordan, now Jordan, out of disparate elements in 1921.?
Jordan 1969. SV Guerrillas on battle training course.
LV Soldiers cross ground under fire.
SV Two soldiers with machine gun.
SV Men crawl under barbed wire and run.
Jerusalem, 1936. SV's, STV's British troops in Jerusalem. (4 shots)
SV Troops searching Arabs. (3 shots)
SV Injured man on stretcher.
Jordan, 1946. GV Abdullah's Palace.
SV Abdullah talking to officer.
Jerusalem, 1936. GV's burning buildings at night (4 shots)
SV British troops among debris.
GV Building shelled.
Amman, 1952 GV King Hussein swearing in.
SV PAN Audience.
SV Hussein out of building.
GV Parade after ceremony.
SV Hussein takes salute.
Middle East, 1967. SV Israel tank through street.
SV Tanks firing, shells falling. (6 shots)
Bethlehem, 1967 CU sign "Welcome to Bethlehem"
SV Dayan and officer tour Bethlehem.
CU Sign Star of David PAN to Dayan and party through streets.
SV Dayan and party PAN UP to Wailing Wall.
GV Tanks at Wailing Wall.
SV Jews kissing Wailing Wall.
LV Guns overlooking Wailing Wall.
SV Soldiers PAN to Dayan at Wailing Wall.
Jordan, 1968. GV PAN refugee camp.
Jordan, 1969. SV boy guerrillas in training with weapons (2 shots)
Amman. 1970 demonstrators
GV Arafat clasps hands in victory sign at window.
GV Demonstrators applaud.
Dawson's Field. Jordan LV Three airliners on field. One explodes and burns. LV smoke rising from shattered aircraft. (2 shots)
Amman, 1970. LV town burning.
SV Armoured vehicle through streets.
Amman, 1970.CU Arafat signing agreement. PAN to Premier and Hussein signing.
SV Onlookers at agreement.
SV Three shake hands.
GV Armoured vehicle through streets.
GV Burning building. PAN UP TO smoke.
Script is copyright Reuters Limited. All rights reserved
Background: The British carved the state of Transjordan, now Jordan, out of disparate elements in 1921. In the ensuing 50 years, the anniversary of which is celebrated on April 11, these elements have been in frequent conflict. First, the struggle with Israel, culminating in partition, three wars, and continuing friction even today. Second, the struggle between the Jordan Government and the Palestine guerillas. That, too, continues ....
To mark the fiftieth anniversary of Jordan, VISNEWS has compiled this feature from its film library.
SYNOPSIS: Jordan -- a flat, barren land where guerrillas train to fight all comers -- including their own Government. This Arabian kingdom, carved out of conflicting elements in 1921, celebrates its fiftieth anniversary on Sunday (April 11).
Jerusalem, 1936 -- and British forces fight Arabs and Jews alike as the formerly British-controlled territory struggles in the throes of civil war. That struggle continues today.... with Jordanian Government forces and Palestine guerrillas fighting each other as well as Israelis.
Abdullah, first ruler of Transjordan as it was known then, forced the British to recognise him as de facto leader in 1921. He ruled for 30 years before being assassinated. Meanwhile, relations between Jordan and its neighbours. Arab and Jewish, alternated between icy and warm. intermittent fighting and civil war was punctuated by a complex series of treaties as Jordan drifted away from the Arab league-where it still remains only on the fringe. The British were called in to help several times; the United Nations partitioned Palestine in 1947; and full-scale war with Israel followed.
Following the assassination of Abdullah and the abdication of his son King Talal - King Hussein was inaugurated in 1952.- But the troubles over disputed borders continued. Peace with Israel was not to be and neither was peace with the Palestine guerrillas who wanted to drive the Israelis out.
While loyalties were split between Royalists and Palestinians, Hussein survived eight or nine assassination attempts. He himself has lost count.......
The June War, 1967. Egyptian troops advancing across the Sinai desert towards Israel spurred the Israeli's into action. Six days of bitter warfare followed with Israel defeating the Arab units, and the Egyptian air force. Jordan's army, which entered the war reluctantly and only after heavy pressure from other Arabs was also defeated. Large tracts of Jordanian territory, long in dispute and originally promised by the British to both sides, was occupied by conquering Israeli troops.
A victorious General Moshe Dayan, the military hero of the Jewish people, led the advance into Bethlehem, birthplace of Christ and a traditional Jewish Holy town.
But the real objective was Jerusalem. For two thousand years this Holy City, now seat of the Israeli Government, was regarded by Jews as their birthplace. Israeli troops had hardly occupied the city before jubilant Jewish civilians were swarming in to reclaim it as their own. They flocked to the Wailing Wall, symbol of their nation, and kissed it with enthusiastic fervour. The Arab armies retired, but their fighting spirit was not defeated. They promised to return, and amid an international row over the war and Israeli occupation they began rearming the troops.
A principal cause of the continuing conflict was the position of Palestine refugees -- Arabs who had left the lands of Israel which they claimed as their own, and flocked across the border. Then the border shifted again after the war, this time to the River Jordan. Once more, refugees moved to Jordan. And while the Arab armies were re-equipping, the more militant Palestine guerrillas, strong arms of the refugees, were also in training. Even boys, hardly into their teens, were taught to fight.
Amman, capital of Jordan harboured Royalist Government troops and Palestine guerrillas in uneasy and often violent co-existence. Pro-Palestinians, led by men like Yasser Arafat, demonstrated against accepting peace plans proposed by the major nations. The guerrillas activities spread, and on one infamous occasion several international airliners were highjacked to Dawson's field, Jordanian desert airstrip, and blown up.
Amman burst into civil war in September last year. Bitter fighting took place as Government troops and the Palestinians struggled for control of the capital, Royalist Bedouin tribes flocked in to help King Hussein, and a partial victory was won against the guerrillas.
The two sides got together, and an agreement was signed by Yasser Arafat, King Hussein and his Prime Minister. The guerrillas withdrew. Divisions of control were established in the agreement, but these soon broke down. Today, skirmishing and minor battles continue. Peace, it seems, is still a long way off. The Arabs of Jordan are split, and only united against Israel -- but even then the Jordan Government is mistrusted, and felt by the rest of the Arab world to be too moderate. The fifty-two year old British dream of peaceful partition between Arab and Israelis has not been realised.