The final celebrations of Budapest's first hundred years as a capital take place this month (November 1973), but the three cities which make up the capital have almost the longest history in Europe.
GV PAN Budapast & River Danube.
GVs Traffic crossing across bridge on Danube (3 shots).
GV PAN Squares and old beautiful building (6 shots)
GV & SV PAN Square with monument PAN old buildings (2 shots)
SV TILT DOWN column monument.
GV Classical building with flags flying.
GV & GV PAN Modern apartment blocks (2 shots)
GV Trams PAN Street scenes and busy traffic (3 shots)
SV PAN LV Historical buildings across danube showing city both sides.
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Background: The final celebrations of Budapest's first hundred years as a capital take place this month (November 1973), but the three cities which make up the capital have almost the longest history in Europe.
More than 2000 years ago, the Eraviscans, who were Celts, settled in the region, but within a hundred years the Romans had pushed forward to the River Danube which today flows through Budapest.
For several centuries Aquincum, the Roman settlement which still survives in part at the north west corner of the modern city, was a frontier of the Roman Empire. Then the Hun tribes swept through the Romans and plunged Europe into the dark ages.
The surviving population of Aquincum gradually disappeared until the Magyars took possession of the important river crossing at the end of the ninth century. They were descended form the Hun tribes and they called the city 'Buda' after one of their old war leaders, Prince Buds. The name of Post also comes form those times.
A fourteenth century manuscript says that when the Magyar's envoy arrived in the centre of Hungary and came to the shores of the Danube - "the place he found beautiful, the land all about him he found good and fertile, the water of the river and its fields he judged to be excellent. He took great liking to it."
Slavonic and Germanic settlers also peopled villages on the West bank of the River - Obuda on the side of the old Roman camp and a village that was the forerunner of Buda. Post was on the east bank.
Much of the city was destroyed during the century and a half of Turkish occupation and the devastating siege by Christian armies which finally captured the city in 1686. Turkish baths, mosques and graveyard can still be seen in Budapest.
At the turn of the 18th century, Pest took the lead on its sister city, Buda - factories were built there and steamboats started operating on the Danube. Buda became the historical, cultural centre - Pest the thriving industrial area. When the two cities and Obuda were united into the capital in 1873, Pest held the majority of the 280,000 population.
The royal castle was burned to the ground and only one building in four was left after the Nazi occupation in World War II, but the city was rebuilt quickly and many historical buildings remain among the twentieth century development.
Today Budapest, with a two million population, is an administrative, cultural and economic centre. The 123 springs feeding the city's indoor pools, spas and thermal baths make it a healing and vacation resort as Well.
SYNOPSIS: Today there are many bridges over the Danube but when the Romans defeated the first Celtic settlers there, they made the river the north-eastern limit of their Empire. Their settlement, Aquincum, still survives in part in the north-west of the city. Then the Hun tribes swept thought he Romans and plunged Europe into the "dark ages". The Magyars who took Budapest at the end of the ninth century were descended form those tribes and they called the city 'Buda' after a former leader.
A fourteenth century manuscript says "when the Magyars" envoy arrived in the centre of Hungary and landed on the shores of the Danube, the place he found beautiful, the land all about him he found good and fertile, the water of the river and its fields excellent. He took great liking to it.
The name of Pest - the more populous city which has grown up on the east bank also comes form Magyr times.
Much of both cities was destroyed when Christian armies ended a century and a half's Turkish occupation in sixteen eighty-six, Turkish baths, mosques and graveyard still remain. Pest, Buda and the suburb of Obuda were united exactly a hundred years ago.
only one building in four remained after the World War two Nazi occupation, but Budapest has been rebuilt quickly - and two million people now live in this beautiful only.