A year ago (27/28 December) a major Soviet airlift of personnel and military hardware arrived in Kabul to back the new Afghan President, Babrak Karmal.
Kabul, November 1979. LV and SV's Afghanistan President Hafizullah Amin and his ministers discuss constitutional reform (3 shots)
GV Amin addressing meeting (2 shots)
Tehran, 1 January 1980. CU PAN Demonstrators climbing gates of Soviet embassy (2 shots)
GV PULL TO LV flag poll flying Soviet flag. People pull flag down and burn it (2 shots)
Washington, 4 January 1980. American President Jimmy Carter speaking
Kabul, early January, 1980. GV and SV tanks and personnel carriers in city (2 shots)
GV ZOOM INTO CU Soviet tank in entre of Kabul (2 shots)
SV People on streets reading newspapers showing photographs of new government
SV INTERIOR President Karmal walks into room and is applauded by officials
Moscow, 19 July 1980. LV Olympic stadium fade to raising of Olympic flat, Lord Killanin and President Brezhnev watching (3 shots)
LV and SV Athlete lights Olympic flame (3 shots)
Paktia Province, Afghanistan. Tribes-men with captured Soviet weapons (2 shots)
GV's children holding weapons look on as man displays anti-tank weapon (2 shots)
GV PULL BACK tribes men firing rifles
Khyber Pass. Refugees carrying children walk along road to Pakistan border
GV and SV Refugee camp, women making bread, surrounded by children (3 shots)
SV and CU Refugee children standing in tent (2 shots)
FILM TAKEN BY MAJAHADEEN GUERRILLA FIGHTERS. Troops move along hillside near Jalalabad.
SV PAN Burning Soviet tank.
GV ZOOM IN dead Soviet soldiers surrounded by Afghan tribesmen
SV PAN ACROSS TO CU tribesmen assembled near burning tank
SOVIET TELEVISION FILM Soviet soldiers hand out food parcels to Afghans (4 shots)
GV Afghans chatting with Soviet soldiers
TRANSCRIPT: SEQ. 5: CARTER: "Because of the Soviet aggression, I have asked the United States Senate to defer further consideration of the S.A.L.T. II treaty so that the Congress can assess Soviet action and intentions, and devote our primary attention to the legislative and other measures required to respond to the crisis."
Script is copyright Reuters Limited. All rights reserved
Background: A year ago (27/28 December) a major Soviet airlift of personnel and military hardware arrived in Kabul to back the new Afghan President, Babrak Karmal. An estimated eighty-five thousand soldiers crossed the border, overwhelming the facilities of Afghanistan airfields. The western alliance expressed outrage at the Soviet move. But a year later, a Soviet spokesman, Mr. Leonid Zamyatin, has announced the troops will remain in the country "until the end", in order to rescue Afghanistan from what he called "interference" by the United States and its allies.
SYNOPSIS: The Soviets apparently made their decision to mobilise in late November, 1979, while President Hafizullah Amin was trying to consolidate his power. His predecessor, Mohammed Tarakki was deposed in a gun battle in September. But only twenty-four hours after telling an Arab journalist that the Soviets wouldn't interfere with his domestic policies, Amin was tried by a revolutionary court on December 27, found guilty of treason and executed.
As Soviet troops poured into Afghanistan to back the new president, Babrak Karmal, Afghan exiles around the world sto??? Soviet embassies demanding the withdrawal of the foreign forces. In one of the angriest demonstrations, the Soviet embassy in Tehran was attacked and the Soviet flag burned. And the American government warned that East-West detente would be endangered unless the Soviets pulled out.
As troops occupied the capital of Kabul, Tass News agency reported that President Karmal had thanked the Soviets for sending troops "in defence of the national independence, sovereignty and territorial integrity of Afghanistan." And Afghan citizens tried to familiarise themselves with the third Moscow-backed government in less than two years.
Sanctions taken against the Soviet included an American-organised boycott of the Moscow Olympic Games in July. But the Soviets were adamant that the issue was a matter between themselves and the Karmal government. Nevertheless they were condemned at the United Nations and sixty-four nations stayed away from the Olympics in protest.
At the time of the Soviet build-up an estimated sixty percent of the Afghan population backed groups of religious and political insurgents. They oppose the presence of foreign troops and the proposed social reforms of the Kabul government, which they call anti-Islamic. But their resistance is hampered by unsophisticated weaponry, though some have supplemented their arsenals with captured Soviet arms.
The alleged "search and destroy" tactics that the Soviets have copied from past American methods in Vietnam have taken a toll on the civilian population. Villages are reported to have been wiped out, crops destroyed, and livestock driven off. By late February of last year, refugees were crossing into Pakistan, at a rate of a thousand a week, to settle in makeshift camps.
Both the Soviets and the Muslim tribesmen are aware of the value of fighting a propaganda war. This film was taken by one of the fighters to record their successes against the more sophisticated Soviet army. And though the Soviets control the cities and toads by day, the insurgents have the run of the mountain villages and roads by night.
The Soviets have attempted to win the "hearts and minds of the people." Is this film, shown on Soviet television, Soviet soldiers are see giving aid to Afghan citizens. But the Afghan people are still divided along ethnic, linguistic and religious.