At the end of the first World War, few believed Turkey would be celebrating fifty years as a Republic in 1973.
GV ZOON IN TO battlefield.
Scenes of battle with pictures of Ataturk superimposed. Also houses.
Aerial view approaching Red Tower of Sel juks.
GV Janissaries play military music (3 shots)
Aerial view leaving the Red Tower along battlement walls (2 shots)
SV People unloading goods from train fifty years ago. (3 shots).
SV Farmers along road with oxen.
GV Farmers ploughing with steel ploughs drawn by horses. (3 shots)
SV Farmers loading steel hand ploughs.
GV Modern tractors working in field.
Aerial views oil refinery.
Aerial view iron mills.
GV Interior NATO meeting (2 shots)
SCU Turkish delegates.
SV NATO Officers flags and ZOON TO map showing radar domes.
Aerial view radar dome on snow covered hillside.
Aerial views Mosque in Istanbul (2 shots)
GV Steamer and shipping in harbour (2 shots)
GV Traffic and crowds on quay side (4 shots).
Aerial view seaway with shipping.
Aerial view Bosphorous bridge.
Initials APSM/2034 APSM/21.13
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Background: At the end of the first World War, few believed Turkey would be celebrating fifty years as a Republic in 1973.
The Ottoman Empire had been crushed. Istanbul was occupied, and the British, French and Italians held Sultan Mehmed the Sixth hostage with his ministers and advisers. But Mustapha Kemal, a brilliant wartime general, evaded capture by the Allies and gathered a National Liberation Army.
He organised resistance to the allies and, when the Greeks invaded western Turkey in 1921, Kemal's army actually defeated them at the battle of the Sahkaray river.
The following year, Kemal - as a member of Parliament - led a majority of the National Assembly to proclaim Turkey a Republic.
The Sultan fled and reforms came thick and fast. The first women shed the veil; the fez began to disappear. The Caliphate and Koranic Law were replaced by a civil code and a modern faculty of law.
Kemal also ordered a new alphabet to replace the traditional Arabic script which had been chosen for religious reasons. He said the peasant, the producer, was the true lord and master of Turkey but, when he died in 1938, there were only a thousand tractors in Turkey. Today, nearly half a million machines sustain Turkey's agricultural boom.
Turkey is a partner in the North Atlantic Treaty Organisation (NATO). The country has large ground, sea and air forces and plays a key role in Western Europe's new air defence network.
Four modern refineries provide enough oil for half the nation's needs. The iron and steel industry has risen from almost nothing to production of four million tons a year. But perhaps Turkey's most significant achievement of the last fifty years is the new Bosphor us bridge. It officially opens on Tuesday (October 30) - the day after Turkey celebrates its fiftieth anniversary as a Republic.